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Avala tower

Started working after five years of construction, 1965. year. Tower architects have designed Uglješa Bogdanovic (who died in 1994.) And Slobodan Janjic, and designer, Academician Milan Krstic. Its construction was entrusted to the construction company work. Hundred architects worked in the winter and summer, implanting more than 4,000 tons of reinforced concrete. The culmination of work has been setting 60-meter high antenna, it weighs about 25 tons, which was successfully installed Goša masters of Smederevska Palanka. In early May 1965. The tower was given final appearance, set the television and radio antennas. Seemingly skinny on three legs, which relied on the basic building blocks of a buried 1.4 meters into the rock, the tower has resisted the ravages of time and choppy košava walking in diameter and up to one meter. 29. April 1999. year, it was devastating NATO bombing destroyed a hundred square meters of his former terrace. The tower is in many ways was unique in the world: * He was the only tower in the world to the cross-section of isosceles triangle * He was one of very few towers that was not directly grounded but is relying on its three legs * Since its opening in the 1965th years, to the destruction of the 29th April 1999. he was the tallest structure in the Balkans Avala Tower was one of the landmarks of Belgrade. Passengers who would come up through Belgrade, were able to know that they are close to the town when they saw the tower. Its reconstruction began in 2005th year. Renewed the tower was supposed to be officially opened on 10th anniversary of its destruction, ie. 29. April 2009. Due to weather conditions, the works are not completed on time. 29. October 2009, Radio Television of Serbia announced that the construction of the tower is completed.

Nebojsa castle

Nebojsa Tower is one of the most famous tower in Belgrade Fortress. It is located in the lower city at the entrance to the former Danube port. It was during the Ottoman rule in Greek patriot executed Riga od Fere. The tower was named the negation of the verb to be afraid, which would mean that the tower is not afraid of any enemy that is unconquerable. Such appointment tower can be found in other Slavic nations, such as. Slovak castles in [1] [2] [3] It is often incorrectly referred to as "Nebojšina tower" due to insufficient knowledge of history and easily memorized the names (because of the nature of language "Nebojšina tower" sounds correct, although a completely different meaning). According to legend, Nebojsa tower was Donjon Tower Belgrade fortress in time of Despot Stefan, who probably looked like a Despot's tower in the monastery of Manasseh. Legend has it that the tower as impregnable, when the Turks after heavy fighting took almost a Belgrade fortress, soared into the air and flew to the Lower Town out of their reach, so they were never occupied. Since then it stands to its present location to testify about his invincibility, and disobedience. Nebojsa Tower has the proper octagonal with thick walls. It has four floors and ground floor (five floors) with a total height of 22m. On each side of the floors are placed cannon openings where the crew could take effect by the attackers to the river and from the mainland. The tower has previously had a flattened top of the ramparts and protruding wooden consoles for action by the enemy. In the first half of the eighteenth century during the major renovation of the Belgrade Fortress conducted by the Austrians, the top of the ramparts of the tower was replaced roof structure which has survived to this day. Tower is one of the typical artillery multistory towers that were built at that time almost all the fortified cities of the time. Nebojsa Tower was formed about 1460 year. Was built by the Hungarians to protect access to the Danube port and himself from the Turkish attacks. Turks during the capture of Belgrade in 1521. was able to penetrate into the lower section only when the artillery destroyed Nebojsa Tower. She was with her guns had great importance in the turbulent history of Belgrade as well, with a tower Mlinar, the strongest tower in the lower city. Because it was often the target of conquest artillery, so many times destroyed and rebuilt. With the loss of importance of the Danube port and its preoccupation Nebojsa tower Turks converted the most famous prison, the Belgrade Fortress. It due to this role becomes one of the dark symbol of Belgrade as the White Tower in Thessaloniki, or Tower of London. Its most famous prisoner was the great Greek patriot Riga od Fere which it was executed 24th 06. 1798th year. Next to him in her life is lost and Metropolitan Methodius, who was killed 1800th year on the orders of Haji Mustafa Pasha. Nebojsa Tower today Nebojsa Tower is the last restoration experienced 1964th years, and now closed to the public, while its outer walls are in good condition. At the beginning of the XXI century the city of Belgrade authorities have reached an approximate agreement with the Greek authorities on the restoration of the tower and its opening to visitors with funds provided by the Greeks. The restoration work has been started in June 2009. year and completed in May 2010. year, and it is expected that by the end of the year is open to the public, the exhibition space on four floors, the first of which will be dedicated to Riga od Fere


The Byzantine Emperor Justinian I rebuilt the Fortress around 535. In the following centuries a fortress suffered continuous destruction under the Avar sieges. The Slavs (Serbs) and Avars had their "state union" north of Belgrade with the Serbs and other Slavic tribes finally settling in the region of Belgrade as well as the regions west and south of Belgrade in the beginning of the 7th century. The name Belgrade (or Beograd, in Serbian), which, not just in Serbian but in most Slavic languages means a "white town" or a "white fortress", was first mentioned in AD 878 by Bulgarians. The Fortress kept changing its masters: Bulgaria during three centuries, and then again the Byzantines and again Bulgarians. The fortress remained a Byzantine stronghold until the 12th century when it fell in the hands of a newly emerging Serbian state. It became a border city of the Serbian Kingdom, later Empire, with Hungary. The Hungarian king Béla I gave the fortress to Serbia in 11th century as a wedding gift (his son married Serbian princess Jelena), but it remained effectively part of Hungary, except for the period 1282-1319. After the Serbian state collapsed after the Battle of Kosovo, Belgrade was chosen in 1404 as the capital of the principality of Despot Stefan Lazarević. Major work was done to the ramparts which were encircling a big thriving town. The lower town at the banks of the Danube was the main urban center with a new build Orthodox cathedral. The upper town with its castle was defending the city from inland. Belgrade remained in Serbian hands for almost a century. After the Despot's death in 1427 it had to be returned to Hungary. An attempt of Sultan Mehmed II to conquer the fortress was prevented by Janos Hunyadi in 1456 (Siege of Belgrade). It saved Hungary from an Ottoman invasion for 70 years.
In 1521, 132 years after the Battle of Kosovo, the fortress, like most parts of the Serbian state, was conquered by the Turks and remained (with short periods of the Austrian and Serbian occupation), under the rule of the Ottoman Empire until the year 1867 when the Turks withdrew from Belgrade and Serbia. During the period of short Austrian rule (1718–1738) the fortress was largely rebuilt and modernized. It witnessed two Serbian Uprisings in the 19th century, the Great Serbian Migration in the 17th century, the Turkish Period. The fortress suffered further damages during the First and the Second world wars. After almost two millennia of continuous sieges, battles and conquests the fortress is today known as the Belgrade Fortress. The present name of Kalemegdan Park derives from two Turkish words, kale (fortress) and meydan (battleground) (literally, "battlefield fortress").

Sveti Sava church

Three hundred years after the burning of Saint Sava's remains, in 1895, the Society for the Construction of the Cathedral of Saint Sava on Vračar was founded in Belgrade. Its goal was to build a cathedral on the place of the burning. A small church was built at the future place of the Cathedral, and it was later moved so the construction of the Cathedral could begin. In 1905, a public contest was launched to design the church; all five applications received were rejected as not being good enough. Soon, the breakout of the First Balkan War in 1912, and subsequent Second Balkan War and First World War stopped all activities on the construction of the church. After the war, in 1919, the Society was re-established. New appeals for designs were made in 1926; this time, it received 22 submissions. Though the first and third prize were not awarded, the second-place project, made by architect Aleksandar Deroko, was chosen for the building of the Cathedral.
Forty years after the initial idea, construction of the church began on May 10, 1935, 340 years after the burning of Saint Sava's remains. The cornerstone was laid by bishop Gavrilo Dožić-Medenica (the future Serbian Patriarch Gavrilo V). The project was designed by Aleksandar Deroko and Bogdan Nestorović, aided by civil engineer Vojislav Zađina. The work lasted until Second World War Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941. The church's foundation had been completed, and the walls erected to the height of 7 and 11 meters. After the 1941 bombing of Belgrade, work ceased altogether. The occupying German army used the unfinished church as a parking lot, while in 1944 the partisans and the Red Army used it with the same purpose. Later, it was used for storage by various companies. The Society for Building of the Cathedral ceased to exist and has not been revived. In 1958, Patriarch German renewed the idea of building the church. After 88 requests for continuation of the building—and as many refusals, permission for finishing the building was granted in 1984, and Branko Pešić was chosen as new architect of the church. He remade the original projects to make better use of new materials and building techniques. Construction of the building began again on August 12, 1985. The walls were erected to full height of 40 meters. The greatest achievement of the construction process was lifting of the 4,000 ton central dome, which was built on the ground, together with the copper plate and the cross, and later lifted onto the walls. The lifting, which took forty days, was finished on June 26, 1989. As of 2009[update], the church is mostly complete. The bells and windows had been installed, and the facade completed. However, work on the internal decoration of the building still remains largely unfinished.

Skadarlija street

Skadarlija is a vintage street, an urban neighborhood and former municipality of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in the Belgrade municipality of Stari Grad (Old town) and generally considered the main bohemian quarter of Belgrade, styled as the Belgrade Montmartre. The history of Skadarlija began in the 1830s with the settlement of Gypsies in the abandoned trenches in front of the ramparts. The 1854 town plan of Belgrade reveals that the Gypsy hovels had been replaced by brick buildings into which artisans, caterers, petty clerks and others moved. The whole locality was referred to as the Gypsy Quarter until 1872, when the street was named after the town of Skadar), which was the capital of the Serbian medieval state (today Shkodër in Albania). Skadarska ulica, Serbian for "Skadar street", is still the official name.
Skadarlija began to acquire its bohemian character in the last few decades of the 19th century, and particularly after 1901,when the well-known Dardaneli inn was demolished and its guests, prominent writers and actors, moved to the Skadarlija inns or kafanas. The best-known of these were Tri šešira ("Three Hats"), Dva jelena ("Two Deer"), Zlatni bokal ("The Golden Chalice"), Bandist, East, Guild, Vuk Karadžić and The two Sergeants. The first three of these still survive today, accompanied by some new restaurants like Ima dana ("There will be days"), Skadarlija (demolished in 2006), Dva bela goluba ("Two White Doves"). The end section of Skadarlija is known as the Skadarlija atrium. It is mostly occupied by the brewery that belonged to one of the most distinguished Belgrade families before World War II, the Czech-originating Bajloni family. It produced "Aleksandar" beer, made from thermal waters that spring out in the brewery's backyard. The well is located 80 to 300 meters (250 to 1000 feet) under the surface. After 1945, the brewery became part of the "BIP" brewery, but was later closed. The spring water was bottled for drinking until the early 2000s. Under the brewery is a complex of lagums (subterranean galleries or catacombes), which were used as a storage rooms for the beer barrels. As of 2008[update], the entire inner complex is abandoned and slated for demolition. The house of Đura Jakšić, a well known writer and painter who lived and died in Skadarlija, has been turned into a meeting place for the poets participating in the Skadarlija Evenings event. Its renovation and restoration began in 1968 in accordance with the designs made by a group of prominent artists: architect Uglješa Bogunović (1922), writer and painter Zuko Džumhur (1921–89), painter Mario Maskareli (1918–96), sculptor Milica Ribnikar-Bogunović (1931), among others. They managed to preserve its existing values and introduce modern facilities without interfering with its historical features. In the late 1960s, Skadarlija regained fame as the center of youth and bohemian artists of Belgade. Plans for further adaptations were made in 1977, but remained on paper until 2008.

The major attraction is the Kula Sibinjanin Janka (The tower of Janos Hunyadi) or the Millennium tower, also known as the Tower on the hill or simply the Gardoš tower. It was built and officially opened on August 20, 1896 to celebrate a thousand years of Hungarian settlement in the Pannonian plain. It was part of the massive construction effort which included buildings in Budapest as well as four millennium towers on four directions of the world. Being the southernmost city in then Hungary within the Austria-Hungary, the tower was built on the ruins of the medieval fortress on Gardoš hill which barely survived today (only angular towers and parts of the defending wall). The tower was built as a combination of various styles, mostly influenced by the Roman elements. Being a natural lookout, it was used by Zemun's firemen for decades. Today, the tower is better known after the Janos Hunyadi, who actually died in the old fortress four and a half centuries before the tower was built.

Ada Ciganlija Lake
Sava Lake often also referred to as Ada, was created from the right arm of the Sava with the building of two dams near the northern and southern tips of the island in 1967. The lake is 4.2 km long, has an average width of 200 m and is 4 to 6 m deep. It covers and area of 0.8 km2 and is 78 m above sea level, one of the lowest areas of Belgrade. 7 km of its shores on both sides have been transformed into a gravel beach. The water regularly reaches 24°C during summer.
Both dams allow water to flow through tubes and pumps. This way, the main body of the lake is connected to the smaller body of water on the southwest, which is itself separated from the river by the third dam. This mini "buffer" lake called Taložnik ("depository") is used as a purifier for the waters of both Sava Lake and city waterworks, which also use this water. Filtered water is constantly being pumped into the lake while on the northeast, the water is pumped out by electrically powered pumps through another dam into Čukarica Bay. In this way, an artificial flow of water through the lake is created. Because the water is also used for drinking, sanitation and environmental protection of the lake are imperative and the lake is under rigorous environmental protection. Weeds are groomed on the lake's bottom to purify the water by bonding phosphorus, nitrogen and dirt. Use of motorboats is strictly prohibited in the lake and dogs are also not allowed on the beach.
Wildlife in the lake mostly consists of introduced fish species. The most common fish in the lake are silver carp and grass carp but large catfish can also be found, causing concern and an issued statement that they are harmless. The freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi was discovered in 2008, garnering much attention for the lake.[6] These tiny, transparent and gentle anthomedusae begin their life as polyps and develop into jellyfish only if conditions, such as purity and water temperature over 25°C, are right. However, authorities claim that these harmless and almost invisible jellyfish have been present in the lake for over 20 years.

Knez Mihajlova street
Knez Mihailova Street or Prince Mihailo Street is the main pedestrian and shopping zone in Belgrade, and is protected by law as one of the oldest and most valuable landmarks of the city. Named after Mihailo Obrenović III, Prince of Serbia, it features a large number of impressive buildings and mansions built during late 1870s. 1km long Knez Mihailova Street was declared Spatial Cultural-Historical Units of Great Importance in 1979, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.
The street follows the central grid layout of the Roman city of Singidunum. During Ottoman occupation, there were gardens, drinking-fountains and mosques along the street. In the middle of the 19th century, the upper part of the street bordered the garden of Knez Aleksandar Karađorđević. After the implementation of the regulation plan of Belgrade (1867), by Emilijan Josimović, the street soon gained its current look and architecture. Houses were built there by the most influential and wealthiest families of Belgrade society. In 1870, city authorities officially named this street - Ulica Kneza Mihaila (Prince Michael Street).

Botanicka basta Jevremovac
Botanical garden was founded in 1874 by the decree of the Ministry of Education of the Kingdom of Serbia, at the suggestion of Josif Pančić, famous botanist who also became its first manager. In 1889, king Milan Obrenović donated the estate (inherited from his grandfather Jevrem Obrenović) to the Great School in Belgrade for the purpose of the construction of botanical garden, provided that it be named "Jevremovac" (Serbian for "Jevrem's garden"), after his grandfather. It exists to this day at the same location and under the same name and gave its name to the small surrounding neighborhood. Apart from its founder, Josif Pančić, very important for the development and growth of Jevremovac was its longtime manager (1906-34), Nedeljko Košanin under whose supervision botanical garden lived its 'golden age'. Present manager (2011) is prof. Petar Marin. After World War II, new Communist authorities suppressed public usage of word Jevremovac, so it was simply known as "botanical garden" until 1990s when Jevremovac came into common usage again. Also, arboretum was very neglected for decades and only recently began its partial renovation and beautification but Jevremovac soon became popular again and today, with 60,000 visitors a year, it is the second most visited natural monument in Serbia, after the mountain and national park Kopaonik.

Great War Island
Great War Island is located at the mouth of the Sava river into the Danube, in the Danube's widening between the Kalemegdan fortress as the ending section of the Terazije ridge of northern most part of Šumadija on the west and the low, easternmost section of the Syrmia plain, the modern Ušće neighborhood of Novi Beograd, on the south. The island is relatively close to the banks, at the closest it is just 200 meters away from both Novi Beograd and Kalemegdan. On the south, halfway between the Great War Island and Ušće is the remnant of previously larger Little War Island.
The island gained its militant name because throughout the history Great War Island was an important strategic point either for the conquest or the defence of Belgrade. For example, in 1521 when Belgrade was under siege by Turkish forces, the majority of their attacks on Belgrade fortress were launched from the island. In liberating Belgrade in 1806 the rebel army headed by Karađorđe also used the island for military purposes, as the Serbian artillery with 500 soldiers was bombing the Kalemegdan fortress from there. During the offensive in 1915 by Austria-Hungary against Belgrade, Austria-Hungary forces used the island to launch their attacks. When construction of Novi Beograd began in 1948, the city government made a decision to completely destroy the island by using its sand and earth to cover the marshes of Syrmia, where new city was to be built. However, the deposits of alluvial materials continually brought onto the island from the Danube completely prevented this from happening. Instead, the smaller Little War Island served this purpose and was nearly destroyed in the process. Though officially uninhabited, almost a dozen of people live in small shacks in the island's interior. [3] They are mostly retirees who move to the island during the warm season and maintain their vegetable gardens, while in the winter they return to Belgrade.